By Thomas T. Warner
This accomplished quantity will fulfill all who want to know extra in regards to the climate and weather of arid lands.
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Extra info for Desert Meteorology
Areas in which precipitation was enhanced by the orography are not shown, for graphical clarity. The model simulated a mountain drying effect in the southern North American Great Plains, but the amount is less than the large 1 mm d−1 plotting threshold. Farther north, to the east of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, the annual rainfall in the prairie was about a factor of three greater without the mountains. The seasonal effect of the mountains on the simulated rainfall for an area in central Asia is illustrated in Fig.
In contrast to this unstable situation, consider one in which the surface temperature is the same, but the environmental lapse rate is less than the dry adiabatic value of 10 K km−1 . That is, the solid line would be to the right of the dashed line in the figure. Now, a parcel that is displaced upward will immediately become cooler and more dense than its environment, and the downward buoyant force will cause the parcel to return to its original position. This is a stable environmental lapse rate, and will not lead to the production of cloud through buoyancy.
Vegetation types have also been employed (Shantz 1956). These non-climatological approaches also have drawbacks that make them difficult to apply in a general way (Thames and Evans 1981). A typical classical qualitative definition of deserts is offered by Petrov (1976), and refers to the climate, vegetation and soils. Deserts and semideserts are considered to be territories with an extremely arid climate (irregular precipitation, less than 200–250 mm annually, and excessive evaporation), sometimes with dried-up or intermittent streams, absence of regular surface runoff, with saline soils and crusts where sulfates and chlorides predominate.
Desert Meteorology by Thomas T. Warner
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