By Haifeng Yu
Recent growth during this box exhibits that integrating photochromic molecules into LC fabrics permits one to photo-manipulate detailed positive factors similar to photoinduced section transition, photocontrolled alignment and phototriggered molecular cooperative movement, resulting in their novel functions past monitors. This publication introduces readers to this box, from the first- to the complex point in photoresponsive LC fabrics. the topic is brought step by step, together with the fundamental wisdom of LCs, photoresponsive homes of LCs, and their precise performances within the kind of low-molecular-weight compound, polymer, cross-linked elastomer, and block copolymer.
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Extra info for Dancing with Light: Advances in Photofunctional Liquid-Crystalline Materials
2, LC molecules show dielectric anisotropy and diamagnetism. Such anisotropic properties are responsible for their alignment under electric and magnetic fields. As shown in Fig. 16, LCs with positive electrical anisotropy orient with their directors along the electric direction (E), whereas LCs with negative electrical anisotropy orientate perpendicularly to E. Similarly, LCs can be aligned along the magnetic direction. 16 LC alignment by an electric field (above) and a magnetic field (below). 4 Surfactant Dipping and LB Membrane Some surfactants like lecithin and silicone compounds can be used to chemically modify glass surface, endowing the treated substrates with capability of anchoring LCs.
Since the energy levels of the different shells are quantized, a coherent ray is emitted in the form of an X-ray photon with energy equal to the difference in energy levels of the two shells. XRD is widely used to identify a smectic phase from a crystal, a nematic phase, and other smectic phases. X-rays are diffracted at crystal planes since the distance between the planes is comparable to the wavelength of the X-ray (Fig. 23). Typical XRD data of LC samples are given in Fig. 23. In general, smectic LC samples often show sharp peaks at the small-angle area because of the 2D ordered structures.
4 Heating Glass Tubes Heating a capillary tube containing one sample slowly might be one of the simplest methods to characterize one LC phase. Non-LC materials are melted into transparent liquids, whereas LC samples show non-transparent liquid because of the scattering of visible Characterization Methods light. Due to their low viscosity, nematic LC materials flow down along the wall of glass tube. Smectic LC samples often stick to the glass wall because of their high viscosity. Bright colors often appear when heating CLC materials.
Dancing with Light: Advances in Photofunctional Liquid-Crystalline Materials by Haifeng Yu
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