By E.M. Salomons
Noise from automobiles, trains, and aeroplanes might be heard at huge distances from the resource. actual predictions of the loudness of the noise require actual computations of sound propagation within the surroundings. This publication describes types that may be used for those computations. The versions take note of complicated results of the ambience and the floor floor on sound waves, together with the consequences of wind and temperature distributions, atmospheric turbulence, abnormal terrain, and noise obstacles.
the most textual content of the publication makes a speciality of actual results in atmospheric acoustics. the results are illustrated through many numerical examples. the most textual content calls for a really restricted mathematical historical past from the reader; specified mathematical descriptions of the types, constructed from the fundamental rules of acoustics, are awarded in appendices. types for relocating media are in comparison with types which are in keeping with the potent sound velocity process. either two-dimensional types and third-dimensional types are offered. As meteorological results play an incredible function in atmospheric acoustics, chosen themes from boundary layer meteorology and the speculation of turbulence also are presented.
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Additional resources for Computational Atmospheric Acoustics
Lithe combinations i) and ii) give equal results, and if the combinations iii), iv), and v) give equal results, we can conclude that the effective sound speed approximation is an accurate approximation. IT two-dimensional results are equal to three-dimensional results, we can conclude that two-dimensional modeling, based on the axisymmetric approximation, is an accurate approach. In this example the source height is 2 m, the frequency is 400 Hz, and the flow resistivity of the ground surface is 200 kPa·s·m- 2 • Results are shown in Fig.
We first investigate how accurate the CNPE and GFPE methods can reproduce the exact field of the relative sound pressure level shown in Fig. 5, for a rigid ground surface and a non-refracting atmosphere (b := 0). The CNPE field is shown in Fig. 16 and the GFPE field is shown in Fig. 17. We see that the GFPE method is accurate up to high elevation angles, while the CNPE method is accurate only up to about 30° or 40°. 18 shows the relative sound pressure level along a horizontal line at a height of 50 m in the fields shown in Figs.
The three methods are described in detail in Appendices F, G, and H, respectively. 37 E. M. 1. Refraction of a plane wave in an atmosphere with sound speed Cl for Z ~ Zt and sound speed C2 for Z > Zt. Line segment AB is a wave front of the incident wave. Secondary sources (solid circles) at the interface Z = Zl generate spherical waves which form wave front A'B' of the refracted wave. 2. Refracted sound ray from a point source to a receiver, in the same atmosphere as in Fig. 1. The origin of the xz coordinate system is chosen at the position of the source.
Computational Atmospheric Acoustics by E.M. Salomons
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