By Svetlana Le Fleming

ISBN-10: 0415261163

ISBN-13: 9780415261166

Colloquial Russian 2 is designed to assist these eager about self-study; established to provide you the chance to hear and browse plenty of glossy, daily Russian,

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Extra info for Colloquial Russian 2: The Next Step in Language Learning

Example text

Some adjectives, including those ending in -skij, have no short form. Adverbs Adverbs are formed in the same way as neuter short form adjectives. By´ stryj ‘quick’ – by´ stro ‘quickly’: on ide¨ t by´ stro ‘he is walking quickly’. Verbs Compared with English, Russian has very few tenses: one present, two future and two past. Verbs fall mostly into two conjugations, or patterns of endings: first and second. First conjugation verbs may often be recognised by their infinitive ending in -at; or -qt;: de´ lat; ‘to do, make’; terq´t; ‘to lose’.

3 Emphasis on the process of the verb: Q l[bl[´ kata´ t;sq na ly´ 'ax. I love skiing. 4 After the verbs nahina´ t; / naha´ t; and stat; ‘to begin’; konha´ t; / ko´nhit; ‘to finish’; prodol'a´ t; ‘to continue’ and some other verbs with similar meanings, the imperfective infinitive is always used: Q to´l;ko hto ko´nhila rabo´tat; nad \´toj kni´goj. I have only just finished working on this book. For other verbs meaning ‘to stop’ see Unit 14. Perfective aspect 1 Emphasis on completion or result. This may be a single action: On ko´nhil rabo´tu.

There is further information on how the instrumental is used to translate ‘by’ in Unit 10. 2 It is also used after certain prepositions: za me´ 'du nad pe´ red pod s behind, beyond, for (to fetch) between over in front of, before under (place) with (accompanied by) There is more information on the uses of za in Unit 8 and on s in Units 5 and 6. 3 The instrumental is frequently used as the complement of byt; ‘to be’ when this verb is in the past or future tense or the infinitive: On xote´ l byt; prezide´ ntom ‘He wanted to be president’.

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