By Arie S. Issar

ISBN-10: 0511061188

ISBN-13: 9780511061189

ISBN-10: 0521817269

ISBN-13: 9780521817264

It truly is now greatly authorised that expanding concentrations of greenhouse gases within the surroundings are inflicting better worldwide temperatures. This quantity presents a complete evaluation of the results of weather variability on hydrological and human structures within the Holocene (the final 10,000 years). The publication concentrates at the areas bordering the Mediterranean Sea, western and significant Europe, China, Japan, West and South Africa and southwestern U.S.A. it truly is meant for researchers and execs in hydrology, climatology, geology and historic geography.

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Additional resources for Climate Changes during the Holocene and their Impact on Hydrological Systems (International Hydrology Series)

Sample text

Later, and to the present day, these trees completely disappeared and were replaced by Acacia sp. and by tamarisk, indicating an arid to semi-arid habitat (Liphschitz and Waisel, 1974). As already mentioned, this climatic crisis affected the whole Middle East. Neuman and Parpola (1987) found documentary proof of aridization in a reduction of the water level of the Tigris– Euphrates and an increase in salinization (from c. 9 ka BP). 5 ka BP. 3 ka BP, the rise in temperature caused severe droughts and crop failures.

18 There are some questions concerning the beginning of the EB. It is not yet clear whether it started immediately after the end of the Chalcolithic period, if there was an overlap between those two cultures or if a gap in time existed between the end of the Chalcolithic period and the beginning of EB I. Until the middle 1970s, the transition from the Chalcolithic period to EB I was explained by intrusion of foreign societies (de Vaux, 1971; Kenyon, 1979; Lapp, 1970). At the end of the 1990s, there are more and more claims that the transition from the Chalcolithic period to EB I was a process of local evolution (Levy, 1986; Schaub, 1982).

The people of the south maintained either a pastoral way of life or agricultural settlements along the riverbeds (Govrin, 1991). Both societies experienced semi-arid conditions from time to time. Therefore, the conditions led them to develop a way of life involving desert agriculture irrigated by floodwater and the technology of shallow wells. This might have given them a sufficient water supply during less rainy years. It is reasonable to think that a severe crisis in the north caused the rapid collapse of the settlements in that area, while the impact of the crisis on the population of the more arid zone, who exploited their knowledge and life style, was less severe, at least in the beginning.

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Climate Changes during the Holocene and their Impact on Hydrological Systems (International Hydrology Series) by Arie S. Issar

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