By Daniel E. Atkinson

ISBN-10: 0120661500

ISBN-13: 9780120661503

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It follows that a reaction cannot proceed when AG > 0. Under those conditions, the reaction must go in the reverse direction. T h e value of AG for the reverse reaction, under any conditions, is equal to that for the forward reaction under the same conditions, but opposite in sign. If we know the value of the equilibrium constant and the effective concentrations of the reactants and products, we know directly from the relative values of Q and Kin which direction the reaction must go to a p p r o a c h equilibrium (to bring the value of Q to equal K).

In the case of A T P , the feasible conversion is hydrolysis, and the reaction A T P + H 0 ^ A D P + Pj is far from equilibrium. The system meets the second requirement of a useful energy storage system, in that it is kinetically inert. Solutions of A T P in water are quite stable kinetically. Finally, the energy can be used when needed as a consequence of enzymatic catalysis. In muscle contraction and in some active transport systems operating across membranes, direct A T P hydrolysis, linked tightly to contraction or to sub­ strate movement, probably occurs.

F r o m their photochemical apparatus, photoheterotrophs thus gain greater efficiency in use of organic food, but not independence of such food. Although all are dependent on preformed organic c o m p o u n d s , heterotrophs differ markedly in the number of c o m p o u n d s required. Some bacteria and fungi can make all of the c o m p o u n d s of the cell when supplied with any suitable single carbon source, but many other species, including many microorganisms, have lost some or many biosynthetic capabilities.

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Cellular Energy Metabolism and its Regulation by Daniel E. Atkinson

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