By Eugene A. Sharkov
This publication represents the main finished description of the actual findings of an research into the spatio-temporal features of the gravity of breaking waves and the froth task in open sea by way of tools and tools of optical and microwave distant sensing.
The learn of actual and electrodynamics' homes of the gravity wave breaking tactics and the froth spatio-temporal task is a crucial side of satellite tv for pc oceanography, ocean engineering, air-sea interplay and ocean distant sensing. particularly, the contribution of froth formations of varied varieties to the suggest and the spatio-temporal diversifications of radio emission, back-scattering, IR and optical parameters of the disturbed sea floor is extremely major. The statistical features of wave breaking and attendant foam forming are vitally important to ocean wave dynamics. The research and size of spatio-temporal features of wave breaking and sea foam formations are of primary significance in ocean distant sensing.
Much emphasis is put on the actual facets of breaking procedures essential to degree the probabilities and obstacles of distant sensing equipment in particular remark situations of an oceanic floor. various useful functions and illustrations are supplied from air-borne, ship-borne and laboratory updated experiments.
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Additional resources for Breaking Ocean Waves: Geometry, Structure, and Remote Sensing
Sec. 1) for October 31, 1981, at 00 hr 00 min and 09 hr 00 min, Moscow time (USSR Hydrometeocenter archive data), as well as by the data of measurement of the magnitude and direction of a wind ¯ux velocity vector during weather observation ¯ights using air navigation instruments. 1). During altitude ¯ight of the airplane laboratories, optical surveying was performed over a rectilinear crossing of extension 250 km along the steady wind ¯ux vector and general sea wave propagation. Surveying was performed on the IL-14 laboratory from 10 hr 36 min to 11 hr 19 min at an altitude of 400 m at a speed of 270 km/h, and on the AN-30 laboratory from 08 hr 58 min to 09 hr 46 min (track I) and from 10 hr 35 min to 11 hr 17 min (track II) at an altitude of 1500 and 5100 m, respectively, at a speed of 375 km/h.
To describe the altitude pro®les of temperature and mean wind velocity we can make use of the linear±logarithmic approximation. To estimate the degree of correlation of sea waves with the wind ¯ux, we shall make use of the technique developed on the basis of processing a series of contact experiments including the international JONSWAP experiment. This technique includes consideration of two inequalities (Carter, 1982): D > 1:167 X 0:7 Y u 0:4 10 X < 2:32u 210 2:4 where D (hr) and X (km) are the time and spatial dimension of the wind ¯ux interaction with the surface; and u10 is the wind velocity at an altitude of 10 m from Sec.
The hypothesis on the linear character of the distribution function can be accepted and, consequently, the conclusion can be drawn about the constant value of the probability density of speci®c ®lling the sea surface with breaking centers over a space of separately considered sectors (azimuth directions). 11c)Ðthat is, for the values of azimuth angles from 0 to 360 , which is quite natural, by the way. Thus, it can be shown experimentally that in the mode of developed and anisotropic seas the ®eld of gravity wave breaking centers represents an azimuthhomogeneous ®eld within spatial scales of 1±2 km.
Breaking Ocean Waves: Geometry, Structure, and Remote Sensing by Eugene A. Sharkov