By Colin Harrison, Alan Greensmirh.

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Энциклопедия для орнитолога. 422 страницы посвящённые птицам и всему, что с ним связано

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Extra resources for Birds of the world

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G. 5 mEq/L/ hr or 10–12 mEq/L/day LRS: Lactated Ringer’s solution. ­olume d v ­ iscrepancies. Patients suffering from CHF may require a sodium‐ restricted diet, depending on the extent of their underlying disease. All patients should be closely monitored for signs of volume overload to prevent overcorrection of hypovolemia or exacerbation of existing hyper­ volemia. These signs may include pulmonary crackles, increased blood pressure, increased central venous pressure, increased urine output, jugular venous distension, widened pulse pressure, dyspnea, tachycardia, and peripheral edema.

Myxedema coma: is a rare complication of untreated, chronic severe hypothyroidism or an acute hypothyroid crisis impacts a number of organ systems. Exact mechanisms are not known, but there are a few reasons proposed for hyponatremia in these patients, including increased vasopressin release and reduced aldosterone release (Hess 2009). Clinical signs The rate of onset and magnitude of the derangement are the most significant factors when considering clinical signs. As plasma sodium levels reduce, water moves into the ICF in response to changes in the osmotic gradient.

Nelson & C. G. Couto (eds), Small Animal Internal Medicine. St Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier: 864–83. Robertson, G. L. (1983). Thirst and vasopressin function in normal and disordered states of water balance. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 101(3): 351–71. , & Kurtz, A. (1995). Nitric oxide and prostaglandins are involved in the macula densa control of the renin system. American Journal of Physiology 269: 825–30. Stephenson, R. B. (2007). Neural and hormonal control of blood pressure and blood volume.

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