By Jens Nielsen, John Villadsen, Gunnar Lidén
This is often the second one version of the textual content "Bioreaction Engineering ideas" by way of Jens Nielsen and John Villadsen, initially released in 1994 by way of Plenum Press (now a part of Kluwer). Time runs quickly in Biotechnology, and whilst Kluwer Plenum stopped reprinting the 1st version and requested us to make a moment, revised version we fortunately accredited. A textual content on bioreactions written within the early 1990's won't mirror the big improvement of experimental in addition to theoretical features of mobile reactions up to now decade. within the preface to the 1st variation we admitted to be newbies within the box. one among us (JV) has had 10 extra years of task education in biotechnology, and the more youthful writer (IN) has now bought overseas reputation for his paintings with the most popular subject matters of "modem" biotechnology. moreover we're satisfied to have triggered Gunnar Liden, professor of chemical response engineering at our sister collage in Lund, Sweden to hitch us as co-author of the second one variation. His contribution, specifically at the chemical engineering facets of "real" bioreactors has been of the best price. bankruptcy eight of the current variation is essentially unchanged from the 1st variation. we want to thank professor Martin Hjortso from LSU for his enormous support with this bankruptcy.
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Extra info for Bioreaction Engineering Principles: Second Edition
24 Chapter 2 In secondary active transport the compound is transported across the cytoplasmic membrane at the expense of a previously established gradient of another substance. If the two substances are transported in the same direction, the transport process is called symport (as illustrated in Fig. 3); if they are transported in opposite directions, it is called antiport; and if an electrochemical potential drives the flow of ions, it is called uniport. Often, secondary active transport is coupled to the pH gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane, and in order to keep the intracellular pH constant it is necessary to pump protons out of the cells by means of ATPase.
When the electrons are transported through the electron transport chain protons are pumped across the membrane (the cytosolic membrane in prokaryotes and the inner mitochondrial membrane in eukaryotes). The protons are pumped against a proton and electrochemical gradient and the Gibbs free energy gained in the oxidation of NADH is hereby transferred to a concentration and electrochemical gradient. , the Gibbs free energy is reconverted from a concentration and electrochemical gradient to high-energy chemical bonds.
The theoretical PIO ratio for oxidation of cytoplasmic NADH is therefore lower than that for mitochondrial NADH. To calculate the overall PIO ratio it is therefore necessary to distinguish between reactions in the cytoplasm and reactions in the mitochondria. I_ _ _ _- . I Oxaloacetate :~~~~i (9) i Malate (8) (2). I Acetyl-CoA Glyoxylate (12) Fumarate (11) A TP ADP ! II (7) Succinate ~ n (3)! 5 TCA cycle, pyruvate carboxylation and the glyoxylate cycle. To simplify the diagram CoA is not shown. The reaction from succinyl-CoA to succinate does in reality involve GTP, an analogue of ATP, but again to simplify the diagram the two species are lumped together.
Bioreaction Engineering Principles: Second Edition by Jens Nielsen, John Villadsen, Gunnar Lidén
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