By Rachel Jones (auth.)
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Extra resources for Beyond the Spanish State: Central Government, Domestic Actors and the EU
Terms agreed during the negotiations caused further difficulties during membership, exacerbated by the achievement of an EC Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) in January 1983, and the Community’s reluctance to admit a 17 000-strong Spanish fleet which far exceeded the EC fleet in size (see Chapters 6 and 7). A key bargaining tool used by the Spanish delegation was to accuse EC negotiators of placing excessive demands on its relatively fragile democracy. It constantly reminded the EC of the dangers of overestimating the stability of the Spanish democratic framework, and of relying on an unquestioning internal consensus whatever the speed of negotiation or the conditions demanded.
The final package formed the basis for Spain and Portugal’s integration into the Community on 1 January 1986. From an economic perspective, despite the final success of the negotiations, Spain accepted a ‘punishing treaty of accession’ (Harrison, 1992, p. 205). Spain was, in many respects, an unequal partner as it opened its markets to the EC and reduced the external tariff on industrial goods from third countries to the EC average of 5 per cent within seven years. Most Spanish agricultural products were subjected to a waiting period of ten years before being fully integrated into the Community.
17–18). 13 In its official opinion on EC accession, the UGT stressed that ‘ni nuestro sindicato ni ningún otro, ha sido consultado previamente de forma global sobre los distintos aspectos de la negociación … ’ (neither our union nor any other has been previously fully consulted on the various aspects of the negotiation … ) (UGT, n/d, p. 6). Similarly, the CCOO was critical of meetings with the Secretariat of State for the EC, which were described as consisting of a posteriori information on the bargaining position without any evaluation of the likely socio-economic implications.
Beyond the Spanish State: Central Government, Domestic Actors and the EU by Rachel Jones (auth.)
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